This is a studor vent. They are used for passive air pipe venting when roof venting can't be achieved. Studor vents are activated by negative air pressure allowing your drainage system to properly flow without creating vacuum pressure and clogging. They normally last 20 to 30 years but are known to go bad or fail before then. If you are noticing your drains that are vented via studor vent are draining slow or frequently clogging could be a sign of a bad studor vent. Another tell-tell sign is the smell of sewer gas/ methane. If you have bad drainage/ clogging or a pungent smell near a studor vent it's likely it has failed and it's time to be replaced.
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